Monterey Peninsula Wildflowers, Shrubs & Trees 

A photographic guide by Michael Mitchell & Rod M Yeager, MD

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 Glossary

Wildflowers of Garland Ranch - a Field Guide includes two pages which illustrate some of the basic parts of plant structure.  CLICK HERE TO DISPLAY THE PAGES

Anther - Portion of the stamen that produces pollen
Appressed - Parallel or nearly parellel to and often in contact with the surface of origin (cf. reflexed)
Axil - The point of the upper angle formed where a leaf (or other plant part) joins a stem.
Bipinnate
- With each leaflet of a pinnate leaf itself being pinnate
Bract - A modified leaf at or near the base of a flower or inflorescence
Calyx - The collective term for all the sepals of a flower
Claw - (Usually) the narrow rectangular base of a leaf or sepal - looking like a cross between the leaf and the petiole - Sometimes broad or diamond-shaped
Cauline - (of leaves) On the stem (as opposed to basal)
Corolla - Collective term for a flower's petals
Decumbent - Mostly lying on the ground but with upturned tips
Decurrent - (of leaves) Extending down the stem from the point of insertion
Disciform - (of a flower head in the Asteraceae family) - like Discoid, but with marginal pistillate or sterile flowers with minute or missing rays.
Discoid - (of a flower head in the Asteraceae family) - comprising only disk flowers
Disk flower - An individual flower (usually bisexual, occasionally staminate but never pistillate), radial with, generally, 5 lobes, found either in the center of a radiate flower or alone in a "discoid" head 
Dioecious - Having staminate and pistillate flowers borne on separate plants
Glabrous - Smooth, without hairs
Hastate - Arrow-shaped but with the basal lobes turned outwards rather than downwards
Hypanthium - Usually a cup or tube-shaped structure formed by the fused lower elements of a flower.
Involucre - Group of bracts at the base of a flower or inflorescence, more or less held together as a unit
Ligule - An individual bisexual flower in a ligulate head (i.e. one consisting only of ligules) (especially in Dandelion-like flowers); strap shaped with 5 lobes. cf. ray flower
Monoecious - Having separate staminate and pistillate flowers borne on the same plant
Ovate - Egg-shaped, widest below the middle.  
Obovate is the reverse, widest above the middle
Panicle - An open, branching racemose (raceme-like) inflorescence
Pedicel - The stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence
Pappus - In Asteraceae - the awns, scales (flat, membraneous elements) or bristles arising out of the ovary that take the place of the calyx
Peduncle - The stalk of an inflorescence
Petiole - The stalk of a leaf
Phyllary - A bract of the involucre of a member of the Asteraceae family
Pinnate - With two rows of leaflets on either side of a central axis
Pistil - The female reproductive organ, comprising ovary, style and stigma
Pistillate - The female part of the flower, (from pistil)
Raceme - A flower head with flower heads maturing from the bottom upwards (hence: Racemose)
Ray Flower - An individual pistillate or sterile flower in a radiate head (i.e. one comprising both ray and disk flowers); strap shaped, often with 3 lobes.
Reflexed - Bent or curved down or back from the point of origin
Samara - A form of fruit in which the seed is encased in a wing of fibrous, papery tissue
Sessile Arising more or less directly from the stems with no obvious pedicel or petiole
Sepal - One of the segments forming the outer part of a flower (typically comprising the outside of a flower bud)
Sorus (pl. sori) - (Found on the underside of fern leaves) - An oblong or round cluster of "sporangia" (the spore-producing structure)
Stamen - The pollen-bearing, 'male' flower; the stamen supporting the pollen-bearing anthers - hence staminate
Stigma - The portion of the pistil on which pollen is deposited
Strigose - Of hairs - stiff, sharp, and appressed
Stipule - An appendage at the base of the petiole, sometimes in the form of a pair of tiny leaves, sometimes scale-like
Style - Stem-like portion of the pistil, connecting the ovary to the stigma
Tomentose - Covered in dense fine hairs, in the case of leaves, giving a felty appearance and texture
Umbel - Flower head with pedicels or flowers (if sessile) arising from a common point.
Whorl - A ring-like arrangement of flowers or leaves arising from from a common point


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