Rubiaceae: Madder Family — Bedstraw & Madder
Bedstraws are characterized by very small, 4-lobed, rotate flowers (the united petals radiate from a central point, like the spokes of a wheel). They have small, whorled leaves, mostly in 4s but occasionally in 6s (a few exceptions have 5 or 8). Many are small and low-growing, a few are larger. Some are climbing or sprawling, with or without woody stems. Identification can be difficult at first, but persistence and attention to detail will be rewarded.