This magnificent tree is less massive than the Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea, not shown), but taller. It is long-lived (1200–1800 years or more), and the tallest of all trees. The short (10–25 mm) bright green leaves are alternate and flat (though leaves near the tops of the tree tend to be closed and scale-like). The cones are absurdly small for a tree of its size, no more than 35 mm in length. The thick, fibrous, reddish bark provides effective protection against forest fires. The trunks frequently have burls, repositories of dormant buds which enable the tree to regenerate asexually. Although wildfires will rarely destroy a Coast Redwood, it may hollow out the base of the trunk to form what are sometimes called “goosepens” (places where settlers in earlier times were able to corral their livestock). Monterey County is the southern end of this tree’s range. Further south, there isn’t enough summer fog.